Thursday, November 10

23 Major Areas or Branches of Agriculture

According to the definition of International Journal of Agricultural Science (IJAS, 2012), “agricultural science” is defined as the study of the science and management of biological systems for the sustainable production of food and fiber.

It involves the set of activities that transform the environment for the production of animals and plants for human use.

23 Major Areas or Branches of Agriculture

According to the classification by International Journal of Agricultural Science (IJAS, 2012), agriculture can be categorized into the following 23 major areas or branches:

1. SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE:
This is an ecosystem approach to agriculture. It is the practice of farming that utilizes the principles of ecology.

2. AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION:
This is the application of scientific research and new knowledge to agricultural practices through farmer education.

3. AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING:
This is the application of engineering principles to agricultural production and processing.

4. AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS:
This is the application of the principle of economics to the production of crops and livestock.

5. AGRICULTURAL GEOGRAPHY:
This is a branch of geography that deals with the cultivation of land and the effect of such cultivation on the material landscape.

6. AGRICULTURAL MARKETING:
This is the branch of agriculture which entails all the services involved in moving an agricultural product from the farm to the customers.

7. WATER MANAGEMENT:
This has to do with the study that centers on planning, developing and managing of water resources for agricultural use.

8. IRRIGATION MANAGEMENT:
This entails all the processes undertaken in the artificial distribution and application of water to agricultural crops in dry areas or in period of scarce rainfall (drought) to improve crop production.

9. ENTOMOLOGY:
This is the study of insects (anthropology).

10. ZOOLOGY:
This is the study of animal kingdom including structure, embryology, evolution, classification, habits and distribution of all animals.

11. POMOLOGY:
This is the branch of agriculture that deals with the study of any type of fruit.

12. APICULTURE/BEE KEEPING:
This is the branch of agriculture that deals with the maintenance of honey bee colonies, commonly in hives, by humans. (Beehive is a small box where bees are kept).

13. GENETIC ENGINEERING:
This is the branch of agriculture that deals with the process of human manipulation of an organism genome using modern DNA technology.

14. ANIMAL SCIENCE:
This is the study of farm animals, including livestock and horses, companion animals, etc.

15. ANIMAL BREEDING:
This is a branch of animal science that deals with the evaluation of the genetic value of domestic animals.

16. PLANT BREEDING:
This is the art and science of changing the genetics of plants in order to produce desired traits.

17. HORTICULTURE:
This is the branch of agriculture that deals with the science, technology and business of intensive plants cultivation for human use (i.e. it deals with planting, nursing, watering, trimming, and marking of flowers).

18. AGRONOMY:
This is the science and technology of producing and using plant for food, fuel, fiber, etc.

19. PLANT ANATOMY:
This is the study of the internal structure of plants, especially at the microscopic level.

20. SOIL SCIENCE:
This is the study of different kinds of soils, including soil formation, classification and mapping; physical, biological and fertility properties of soils, and these properties in relation to the use and management of soil.

21. AGROLOGY:
This is the branch of food science that deals with production of crops.

22. SILVOLOGY:
This is the scientific study of forests and woods.

23. FORESTRY:
This is the science, art and craft of creating, managing, using conserving of forest and associated resources in a sustainable manner to meet desired goals, needs and values for human benefit.

The above fully explained 23 major areas or branches of agriculture are being compiled in accordance to the classification of International Journal of Agricultural Science (IJAS, 2012).


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